Friday, March 20, 2020
Looking At Out Expectations Of Social Work Social Work Essay Essays Looking At Out Expectations Of Social Work Social Work Essay Essay Looking At Out Expectations Of Social Work Social Work Essay Essay I am traveling to briefly discourse the significances of hazard. Whilst I am cognizant that there are many theories of hazard, I have identified three chief subjects and will be researching these in relation to modern-day societal work, the subjects of governmentality, cultural theory and hazard society. Present twenty-four hours societal work is concerned with affairs of exposure and hazard ( Kemshall et al, 1997 ) , ( Dalrymple and Burke, 2006 ) , ( Parton, 1996 ) , ( Titterton, 2005 ) , ( Hothersall and Mass-Lowit, 2010 ) . Media coverage of serious instance reviews sing the deceases of kids have led to an onslaught of unfavorable judgment into societal work pattern. In looking for definitions to specify hazard, I found several significances. Traditionally hazard was defined neutrally as a chance or likelihood a behavior or event will happen ( Lishman, 2002: 154 ) , ( Munro, 2002:64 ) , for illustration the possibility of a addition every bit good as a loss. Kemshall ( 2002 ) discusses the utilizations of hazard to insurance and a mathematical chance attack to hazard. In postmodern society, hazard is now attributed to the footings of danger or jeopardy ( Lupton, 1999 a: 12 ) . The construct of Governmentality was developed by the Gallic philosopher Michel Foucault in the ulterior old ages of his life between the late 1970 s and his decease in 1984. His construct provides an apprehension of power, non merely in footings of the power of the province from a top-down attack, but in the more elusive signifiers of power exercised through a web of establishments, patterns, processs and techniques which act to modulate societal behavior ( Joseph 2010:225 ) . Power is noticeable in a positive manner through the production of cognition and discourses that are internalised by persons, steering the behavior of populations and taking to more efficient signifiers of societal control. Parton ( 1994 ) cited in Pease ( 2002 ) writes how persons permit authorities at a distance through being encouraged and supported to exert freedom and pick. Because power is de-centred persons play a function in their ain self-governance. Criticisms of Foucault argue that he fails to recognize that power is non equal to all. It can besides be argued that he lacks mention to the exercising of power in relation to race, age, gender and category, particularly how accessible power is between different societal groups. Cooper ( 1994: 450 ) argues about the character of the engineerings of power sing racialist and gendered discourses being used. It was argued that Foucault was non attentive to how people respond to discourses in their day-to-day lives ( Lupton: 1999 B: 102 ) . Critics besides believed that Foucault lacked consciousness in the power establishments had over persons and that persons behaviour in society was down to following regulations of conventions ( Hoy: 1986:151 ) . Feminist critics such as Hartstock ( 1990:171-172 ) believe Foucault s apprehension of power diminishes persons to objects of power than persons able to defy. Foucault s work on specifying the dealingss and mechanisms of power like governmentality can back up societal workers to believe about their place of power within the constructions ( that maintain the subjugation of service users ) in their work. Empowerment uses societal scientific discipline to work out societal jobs and is a societal justness discourse in societal work. It allows societal workers to redistribute power and cognition in their pattern, whilst challenging and battling unfairness and subjugation. Empowerment develops capacities of persons, whilst underscoring single duty. Pease ( 2002:137 ) argues that there is an premise that power is something that can be given and authorising person is to confabulate. Therefore as Braye and Preston-Shoot ( 2003:100 ) discuss, authorization is about laden people taking the power and demanding to be heard . Because cognition is cardinal to understanding power within society, in order to authorise service users there must be a reallo cation of cognition, an rebellion of subjugated cognition as indicated by Foucault ( 1977 ) . Listening to service users and leting them to hold more control over seeking solutions to their jobs or placing their demands within the wider societal context, is another illustration of authorization. We belong to many societal groups, some by pick and some because they are forced upon us. Within these groups, some have more or less power over others. Social workers need to be cognizant of difference and diverseness and develop a greater sense of ego consciousness about the hazards of labelling, pigeonholing and keeping subjective beliefs. The term Risk Society describes a society that is exposed to harm as a consequence of human activity. German sociologist Ulrich Beck ( 1992 ) foremost used the term, although British sociologist Anthony Giddens has besides written on the same capable affair. Both writers argue worlds have ever been subjected to put on the line, e.g. natural catastrophes but these are seen as being caused by non-human forces. Modern society is now exposed to hazards such as terrorist act, chemical pollution and atomic power. Giddens ( 1999 ) defines these as external and manufactured hazards , external being hazards originating from nature ( e.g. implosion therapy ) and manufactured hazards being the consequence of human activity, e.g. developments in scientific discipline and engineering. As worlds are responsible for manufactured hazards, both Beck and Giddens argue that societies can measure the degree of hazard being produced in a automatic manner that can change the planned activity itself. Peoples are now more wary of what professionals tell us, which is different to the position of the older coevals. We are more critical of professionals and more likely to oppugn them They believe there is an addition in reflexiveness ( the thought that society c an accommodate to new hazards ) as a response to hazard and uncertainness in postmodern society, but Beck ( 1992:21 ) relates this to more hazards and jeopardies being produced, where Giddens ( 1999:3 ) believes in human subjectiveness being more sensitive to put on the line. Criticisms of hazard society inquiry the degree of hazard in postmodern society. Turner ( 1994: 180 ) inquiries whether life has become more hazardous in the present twenty-four hours, than how it affected persons in the yesteryear. Ungar, cited in Goode and Ben-Yehuda ( 2009: 82 ) argues that the menaces of today infuse fright every bit good as, non alternatively of the past frights. Culture, race and gender do non have in both Beck and Giddens Hagiographas and it could be argued that it would be hard for an person to be automatic sing struggles of this nature. Joffe ( 1999 ) argues that there had been a failure to recognize emotion in regard to how people cope with life in a hazard society. Delanty ( 1999:171 ) draws from the unfavorable judgments by Lash, reasoning that Beck and Giddens do non recognize the cultural dimension of reflexiveness, due to ignoring corporate bureau such as the community in favor of individuality. Social work has changed from a concern with demand to one of hazard ( Kemshall, 2002 ) . The media perceptual experience of societal workers neglecting in their responsibility to forestall the deceases of kids or protect the populace from persons known to be mentally sick, has led to more bureaucratic solutions, through statute law, processs and guidelines ( Ferguson, 2004 ) . Blame is allocated due to the accent in hazard ( Douglas, 1992 ) . The ordinance of hazard replaces need as a focal point and concluding for societal work intercession. Lishman ( 2007: 164 ) writes how working with hazard will ever stay a hazardous concern, but with the aid of sound methods and defendable decision-making it can be good managed . Titterton ( 2005:50 ) argues there is no such thing as a hazard free option: all options hold possible hazards . Lishman explains further that in the clime of the blasted civilization, hazard appraisals need to be of a criterion that contain defendable determinations that can keep up in instances where there has been a hazard failure ( 2007:157 ) . There is the danger that in utilizing hazard appraisals to look into handiness for a service, there is the possible for the societal worker to be distanced from the service user. Involving the service user to make their ain hazard appraisals and explicate what they believe are the hazards is a signifier of authorization, which places them at the Centre of the procedure. Clutton et Al ( 2006: 18 ) links the engagement of the service user to empowerment, Risk appraisal may be authorising if it allows the service user to take an informed determination on future action . Social workers have to be able to asses the predicted results of a possible hazard to a service user but this is non ever easy. Differing readings of a state of affairs due to the cultural and societal background of people and groups can do understanding hazard and hazard direction hard in determination devising ( Reed et Al, 2004:149 ) . Service users have started to do picks in how they interact with societal services e.g. self-referral. In order to do programs about their lives, societal workers need to interact with households in new ways that recognise their disadvantage and subjugation in society. It could be asked if service users truly have pick or do they have options within pick? Harris and White ( 2009:100 ) see pick to be a cardinal component of the authorities s modernization docket and are established in services such as direct payments and pick of infirmary. Labeling of service users in appraisals as disturbed , at hazard , in demand , describes behavior from a value position ( Dalrymple and Burke, 2006 ) . Slovic ( 1999 ) writes how risk appraisals are coloured by subjective opinions of the societal worker at every phase of the appraisal procedure. Hall et Al ( 2006:23 ) argues nevertheless that classification of service users in studies, meetings and in the tribunal is an outlook of societal workers as a practical and professional responsibility to supply appraisals and supply a class of action or services. The impression of Culture Theory developed by Mary Douglas ( 1966, 1798 ) and Douglas and Wildavsky ( 1982 ) has been influential in looking at positions on hazard. Cultural theory purposes to explicate how personality and cultural traits influence hazard perceptual experiences and why different people and societal groups fear different hazards. Douglas argues the relation of hazard to political relations and its nexus to answerability duty and incrimination ( Lupton, 1999:39 ) . Douglas and Wildavsky ( 1982 ) introduced the grid/group construct to explicate how cultural proportions can compare society. It defines how people can be divided into four types that predict how they react to different types of hazards- Individualist, Egalitarian, Hierarchists and Fatalist. Thompson et Al ( 1990:5 ) explain group as mentioning to how much the person is integrated into enclosed units and grid to how much a individual s life is restricted as a cause of exterior compulsory instructions. Douglas s theory is non without unfavorable judgment. Lupton ( 1999:7 ) inquiries the media s contributory function to the hazard cognition of their audience. It can be argued that you can non anticipate how anyone will act in response to a peculiar circumstance and that cultural theory is opaque, non taking into history the complexnesss of modern society ( Rayner, 1992, Boholm, 1996 ) . Tansey and O Riordan ( 1999 ) argue the theory is deterministic and takes no history of the free will of persons. Ostrander ( 1992 ) makes a outstanding statement, proposing that cultural theory should use to societal environments in order to separate societal systems as a whole. It could besides be argued that as Douglas does non explicate how risk perceptual experiences sing to persons and administrations change over clip, her theory could be seen as inactive ( Bellaby ( 1990 ) . Gross and Rayner ( 1985:18 ) argue that Douglas fails to explicate, what economic incentives or wants dispose indivi duals to alter their societal place . Accountability means being answerable to others for the quality and efficiency of one s attempts. Social workers are accountable to service users, the community, their section and their supervisors. They must be able to explicate what it is they do, how it is done and that their work meets professional criterions for competency. Mishra ( 1984 ) , cited in Wilson et Al, ( 2008:39 ) writes how there is a decrease in professional liberty and control due to answerability and structural demands being placed on bureaus. Social workers, through fright of misestimating a state of affairs can set about cautious and defensive pattern which falls short of sing the deductions, hazards and benefits to the service user of the determinations made and measures taken. Bamford ( 1990 ) writes how societal workers must develop a system of answerability which does non lose sight of the demands of the clients and their support systems . O Hanlon, cited in Parton and O Byrne ( 2000: 88 ) , separates blame from answerability in that answerability features duty, is authorising and promotes self bureau. Incrimination does non ask for co-operation, is estranging and stopping points down possibilities. An illustration of the links between hazard and incrimination is the instance of babe Peter, who was killed by his female parent s spouse and was the topic of a multiple sum of media attending, proportioning incrimination on the societal workers in his attention. The description of injury and danger portrayed by the media, the authorities and organizational responses to ailments and legal action, ensuing in a blasted civilization is a effect of hazard antipathy employed by some societal workers ( Furedi, 2002 ) . This could go forth societal workers experiencing the demand to protect themselves and hesitant, taking to go throughing the incrimination onto other people. Webb, ( 2006:70 ) links blasted civilization to put on the line turning away being the chief precedence, ensuing in tighter steps of answerability and transparence being involved. Kemshall ( 2002: 94 ) suggests blame serves to beef up answerability, but besides subtly to command information flow and use and to reenforce trueness and solidarity with peculiar point of views on hazard . Duty of the societal worker is linked to answerability. These are sustained in codifications of pattern, the jurisprudence and day-to-day verbal exchanges. Hall et Al ( 2006: 16 ) depict how professionals are aware of their interactions, should their address causes their behavior to be accountable. Parton and OByrne ( 2000: 183 ) discourse the moralss of duty in which service users are able to speak freely about themselves, their state of affairs and the best manner to work out their jobs. Social workers are back uping service users to take duty for their ain actions, which replaces constructs of cause and finding Howe ( 1986 ) , cited in Parton ( 1996:88 ) . The duty of the societal worker is to the wellbeing of service users, but there are times when they work in state of affairss that are conflicting. Dominelli ( 2009:11 ) offers one account of this in a care-control quandary , when there is a demand to equilibrate the finding of the service user with injury. The societal work ers duty to the wider society and attachment to the jurisprudence mean that at times the wellbeing of the service users may non take precedence. In decision we have considered the impact of hazard in the field of societal work. In making so we have identified three chief theories, that of Govermentality, Risk Society and Culture Theory. We have analysed the impact of societal work on these theories. Govermentality Theory helps us to understand power and the production of cognition that enables persons to regulate themselves. Empowerment, as discussed antecedently enables service users to derive control over determinations that affect their lives. Risk Society Theory helps us to understand how communities are organised in its response to hazard. This has been discussed in relation to societal work in the media and the bureaucratic defensive patterns that have developed as a consequence of extended coverage of high profile service weaknesss. Culture Theory seeks to explicate how the societal context in which we operate affects our responses to put on the line. As considered earlier, answerability is a agency for societal worker s to explicate their actions and the logical thinking behind them, blasted civilization leads to societal workers experiencing discerning and self-preserving of their function. The societal worker besides has duty to the service users, but besides to the wider society. Word count 2563
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
History of Women on the Supreme Court Established by Article III of the U.S. Constitution, the Supreme Court of the United States first met on February 2, 1790 and heard its first case in 1792. It would take nearly two centuries another 189 years - - before this august yet single-sex body would more accurately reflect the composition of the nation it presided over with the advent of the courts first female associate justice. In its 220-year history, only four women justices have served on the Supreme Court: Sandra Day OConnor (1981-2005); Ruth Bader Ginsburg (1993-present); Sonia Sotomayor (2009-present) and former U.S. Solicitor General Elena Kagan (2010-present). The latter two, nominated by President Barack Obama, each earned a distinct footnote in history. Confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 6, 2009, Sotomayor became the first Hispanic on the Supreme Court. When Kagan was confirmed on August 5, 2010, she changed the gender composition of the court as the third woman to serve simultaneously. As of October 2010, the Supreme Court became one-third female for the first time in its history. The Supreme Courts first two women hailed from significantly different ideological backgrounds. The courts first female justice, Sandra Day OConnor, was nominated by a Republican president in 1981 and was regarded as a conservative pick. The second female justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, was the choice of a Democratic president in 1993 and widely viewed as liberal. The two women served together until OConnors retirement in 2005. Ginsburg remained as the lone female justice on the Supreme Court until Sonia Sotomayor took the bench in the fall of 2009. Ginsburgs future as a justice remains uncertain; a February 2009 diagnosis of pancreatic cancer suggests she may need to step down if her health worsens. Next page - How a Promise on the Campaign Trail Led to the First Female Justice Although its far from common knowledge, the appointment of the first female justice to the Supreme Court hinged on a pollsters findings and a former beaus support. A Presidents Promise Ronald Reagan biographer Big Pledge, Little Interest One Out of Four She had fewer legal credentials than the other three women on the list. But she had the backing of Supreme Court Justice William Rehnquist (whom shed dated while both were at Stanford Law School) and the endorsement of Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater. Smith liked her as well. As biographer Cannon notes, Mr. Reagan never interviewed anyone else. Next page - Sandra Day OConnor: From Hardscrabble Childhood to Trailblazing Legislator OConnors charm belied the hardscrabble life of her early years. Born March 26, 1930 in El Paso, Texas, OConnor grew up on an isolated ranch in southeastern Arizona without electricity or running water, where cowboys taught her how to rope, ride, shoot, repair fences and drive a pickup. With no school nearby, OConnor went to live with her maternal grandmother in El Paso to attend a private academy for girls, graduating at age 16. OConner credits her grandmothers influence as a factor in her own success. An economics major at Stanford Univerity, she graduated magna cum laude in 1950. Legal Wrangling Led to Law School No Room in the Old Boys Club When the Army drafter her husband she followed him to Frankfurt where she was a civilian lawyer in the Quartermaster Corps. Afterward, they moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1957, where OConnor again received little interest from established law firms, so she started to start her own with a partner. She also became a mother, giving birth to three sons in six years and only stepping away from her practice after her second son was born. From Mother to Majority Leader Subsequently appointed state senator to fill a vacant seat, she was elected for two more terms and became majority leader - the first woman to do so in any state legislature in the U.S. She moved from the legislative branch to the judicial when she was elected to serve as judge on the Maricopa County Superior Court in 1974. In 1979 she was nominated to the Arizona Court of Appeals and in 1981 to the Supreme Court. Not A Wasted Nomination Her ascension to the highest court in the land also had one small side benefit to women - Mr. Justice, the form of address previously used in the Supreme Court, was amended to the more gender-inclusive single word Justice. Health Concerns Her bout with cancer was an experience she did not publicly discuss for a number of years. Finally, a speech in 1994 revealed her frustration with the attention the diagnosis brought, the ongoing scrutiny of her health and appearance, and the media speculation over the possibility of retirement. A Husbands Illness Next page - Ruth Bader Ginsburg: Confronting Sex Discrimination Personally and Professionally The second woman to serve on the Supreme Court, Ruth Bader Ginsburg was nominated by President Bill Clinton during his first term in office. She was his first appointment to the Court and took her seat on August 10, 1993. She had just turned 60 on March 15 of that year. Motherless Daughter, Sisterless Sibling Caregiver and Law Student what it felt like While in law school, she also raised a preschool daughter and supported her husband throughout his treatment for testicular cancer, attending his classes, taking notes, and even typing papers he dictated to her. When Martin graduated and accepted a job at a New York law firm, she transferred to Columbia. Ginsburg made the law review at both schools shed attended, and graduated at the top of her class from Columbia. Rebuffed Yet Resilient Champion of Womens Rights Second Female Nominated Quiet Strength and Tenacity Health issues have dogged her tenure as a Supreme Court Justice although she has never missed a day on the bench. In 1999 she was treated for colon cancer; a decade later, she underwent surgery for early-stage pancreatic cancer on February 5, 2009. See also - Sonia Sotomayor: Supreme Courts First Hispanic and Third Female Sources:Cannon, Lou. When Ronnie Met Sandy. NYTimes.com, 7 July 2005.Kornblut, Anne E. Personal and Political Concerns in a Closely Held Decision. New York Times, 2 July 2005.Ruth Bader Ginsberg Biography Oyez.com, retrieved 6 March 2009.Sandra Day OConnor BiographyOyez.com, retrieved 22 April 2009.Sandra Day OConnor: The reluctant justice. MSNBC.com, 1 July 2005.The Justices of the Supreme Court Supremecourtus.gov, retrieved 6 March 2009.Times Topics: Ruth Bader Ginsberg NYTimes.com, 5 February 2009.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Management Research Project - Assignment Example The latter finally leads to work life balance problems. Individuals and organizations should identify the stressors in workplace and design amicable solutions to combat the issue. If there is an early address on potential stressors, individuals and organizations can alleviate the negative effects associated with stress. To handle the menace well, employees need to identify signs and possible stressors (Adair, 2009). On the other hand, managers need awareness on the effects of stress to employees and general performance of the company in terms of output. It is necessary as an individual to learn how to keep away from stress, as it is also necessary for employers. Tesco is well-structured company with a large number of workforces and offers a suitable platform of the research. Tesco is company with UK origin that began in 1919 started by Jack Cohen a market stallholder selling groceries in London. After merging with T.E Stockwell, Tesco first opened the store in 1929. Since then, the company has expanded extensively across the world and has over 2,200 stores including Tesco Express and hypermarkets to meet customersÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. Tesco is one of the largest British retailers and in the world list; it is one of the leading retail outlets. Tesco has a workforce of over 468,000 that offer the platform for this research. In a move to support its growth attributed to its staffs, the company ensures the staffs are in a sober condition. The company achieves their goal through motivation, training, and ensuring the staffs have the spirit of meeting customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. It motivates the employees through increasing their skills, knowledge, and job satisfaction through training and development programs (Kinder et al., 2008). Stress in the workplace can be damaging to organizational goals if not well-handled and addressed. Thus, for managers, it is
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Age invaders - Article Example The old age at the same time, will reap off the workers. The number of retiring people will increase with an un-matching injection of the same to the economy. Hence, this will lead to a slowed growth in the economy. The most affected sectors are the ones that need the young non-educated people in the industry. Some of the works that need the educated people with more skills have not be affected much with the increased number of the old. This is so since most of the educated workers in the United States and Europe above the age of 60 years are working at the rate of 65 percent. At the same time, much money is paid to the aging. For instance, by the year 2010 12 percent of the wages were being paid to people more than the age of 60 (The Economist Print) To curb shortage of work to some extent, there is need to emphasize on education to ensure that people work for longer into their old age. This is because most of the work done by the un-educated people get harder day by day since it needs more energy. However, this will affect some other sectors of the economy that need manpower. Some countries like Japan have utilized the robots to carry out manual work in the
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Impact Of Agents Of Socialization On Pester Power Education Essay Introduction In this ever changing world, there is an increasing trend in the recognition of pester power of children by the marketers. Pester power is basically the influencing power of the children which they exercise in their routine life to get what they want and indirectly affect the buying decision of their parents. The basic reason behind the acknowledgement of pester power is that exposure of the children is growing over time as they are getting more social so dictating buying decisions of their parents. Thus pester power will be the main focus of my dissertation and the researcher will attempt to determine various factors of socialization that are gradually playing their role in strengthening this kid-influence on parents purchase of products. Background The term Pester Power first originated in US in late 1970s, described as the power children had, by repeated nagging, of influencing their parents to buy advertised or fashionable items. Nicholls and Cullen (2004) studied this parent-child relationship which results in pester power and developed a matrix for it which shows that while a family in making a buying decision parents and child both have to make a tradeoff between desire of control over decision and self realization of resulting purchase. Figure below is the matrix developed by Nicholls and Cullen (2004) it depicts that when children has high self realization and parents have high desire for control their interaction results in pester power of children. Source: Nicholls, A. J., Cullen, P. (2004). The child-parent purchase relationship: pester power, human rights and retail ethics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services Problem discussion Children has an increased access to pocket money and a bigger say in purchase decisions is a result of children getting more information from various sources, being more social and demanding as well. This increase in population of youngsters and their influencing power determines a large potential customer base for marketers. Objectives and research question Based upon above background of study and problem discussion, purpose or main objective of this study is to provide a better understanding of how the agents of socialization of children make them influence their parents purchase decision. In order to conduct this research, research questions are Primary Research question RQ: Do the agents of socialization have an impact on pester power of children? Subsidiary Research questions RQ2: Does parents/peer pressure has an impact on pester power? RQ3: Do advertisements and TV programs have an impact on pester power? Literature Review Kids represent an important market segment to marketers because kids have their own buying behavior. More importantly, kids could monitor the buying decisions of their adult parents because they are the adults of future. Today most of the advertisers spend more on TV advertisements having children content to attract more children which are going to change the behavior of their parents. There are different variables involved in pester power effectiveness. That is what McNeal and Yeh, (1997) has also stated that due to increase in awareness of children market potential had increased in three ways that the children were spending money they had, that is essentially their pocket money, to satisfy their own needs and wants. Secondly, they influenced their parents spending and finally they eventually would become a loyal customer base for the companies in the long run. Interaction with parents is the first thing that influences children buying behaviors. The parents teach their children the buying behavior. Same proposition was given by Ward et al (1977) that primary socialization agents for children were parents and children behavior in adulthood was dominated by their parental influence. If there is a direct and clear communication between the children and their parents then children could be easily influenced by their parents. Mostly the pester power works if there is more emotional engagement between the parents and their children. Children learn from their parents the way in which they live, buy and eat. Moore and Moschis (1981) and Mascarenhas and Higby (1993) stated that the most instrumental among social entities were parents from which children learnt consumer behavior. Another researcher Moschis (1985) has concluded that interaction of children with all other entities was majorly influenced by their parents, when they were in direct or in direct contact with each other. Along with this he also postulated that, because of the nature of parent-child relationship, effects of other agents of socialization like peer groups and mass media were modified to a large extent. Peer Pressure is the second component of the research question, which influences children buying behaviors. Children spent a lot of their time in certain peer groups such as at school, play places or street friends belonging to different families. A child learns a lot from other children. The extent to which these gatherings influence varies from situation to situation. For example, a child can even make a decision to buy his school bag by looking at other children. Same element of influence was studied by many researchers including Parsons et al., (1953), David and Roseboroug (1955), Moschis and Moore (1981) has described the impact of peer pressure in two ways, expressive consumption and effective consumption. By expressive consumption they mean the social motivations and the materialistic values that are associated with the purchases while on the other hand, purchase styles and modes of consumptions were categorized as effective consumption influence. This study comes in line with my study that social motivation and the purchase patterns of both the parents and peers influence children. This influence may or may not be productive as Bachmann, et al (1993) stated that consumption learning from peers affected child consumer socialization directly or indirectly. Another research, stated earlier, by Ward (1974) has explained the relationship of parental influence and peer pressure with age that as age increases parental influence is over shadowed by peer pressure Impact of advertisements content and TV programs on children has gained significant importance by researchers and marketers. Berns (2004) has given a reason for the fact that children are now being used as a marketing tool is their cognitive immaturity, he argued on this point by saying that children were more likely to believe that the images or characters they see on TV were real. Some of ways in which this agent of socialization influences the pester power of children are: Making children desire things which their parents do not want to purchase by showing attractive contents in advertisements. Encouraging children to influence or advocate the buying behavior of their parents Presenting children as heroes in a particular situation such as showing a scene in which other children are in danger and one child adopts the rule of savior etc. Making Children feel inferior by showing them that if they will not buy a particular product they are not good but bad. According to OGuinn and Shrum (1997),a advertising and programming content are the two channels of communication which inform children and young people about products and encourage them to purchase. Another point that O Guinn and Shrum (1997) has stated in their findings is that consumer behavior was learned by children more easily if they were targeted with persuasion shown in commercials and various TV programs. Expansion in media messages and continuous changes in media environment are two key contributors for increasing the level of advertisement subjected towards children. Store Visits and Retailing environments also influence children buying behavior as Shim, et al (1995) proposed that children became more conscious about the information regarding products such as price and brands the more often parent took their children for the shopping. Keeping this in view marketer induce sales by adding some incentives for children to influence their parents to buy a product. For example, a fast food restaurant usually adds play place along with the dining hall or some retailer give away toys, snacks, sweets as gift with the products purchased. Although products are for adults but retailers make children pester their parents to buy that product. The attractive display of product also works in inducing this power more efficiently; these kinds of purchases made by parents under the influence of children are usually impulse purchases. According to research conducted by Schulman and Clancy (1992) on the most admired after school activities among the children depicts that watching TV got the highest attractive scores while second on the list was shopping which shows that in either of the two cases our research questions are being supported that these agents of socializations are impacting children behavior to a large extent. Cartoon character and Celebrities endorsement also has some bearing on children buying behavior. A recent study conducted by Dotson and Hyatt (2005) states that association of brands with certain popular sports, music and stars had increase the level of influence on children. Almost all children watch cartoon programs and other children oriented TV programs such as Quiz shows, Sports Shows etc. By introducing heroic characters like super-man, spider-man and various celebrities in advertisement make children buy that product because of emotional attachment of children with these things. Product category and stage of decision making process are being varied by children as the amount of influence they exert and product they prefer. For some product categories they influence purchase made by the parents and for some other products they are active initiators, information seekers, and buyers. Children influence is different for different products, product sub division, nature of socialization of children and they prefer product what they are attracted towards. Beside of the goods which are for direct consumption, children shows their influence in buying of goods for their family as their parents are less involved in the goods are preferred by them and preference increases in case of less expensive and the products for their own use. (Belch, 2004) Today, most of the marketers are targeting kids because of the change in demographics and psychographics of children population. The first learning point for the children about Where to buy is from family. The family characteristics such as family environment and parental lifestyle enhances the impact of the role of children in the different stages of taking buying decisions, as stated by Belch (2004) as well. Most of the children, when they go out with their parents on shopping, learn where a particular product or service is available and how they can reach them. The second source of children learning about where to buy comes from peer or social group they usually spend their time. As Belch (2004) stated that cultural values influence consumption related behaviors of children. The third source of children learning about where to buy comes from different advertisements and TV programs. There is big problem for children and their parents as viewers because young children are easily at tracted towards the content of advertisements and promotions. Theoretical Framework The independent variable in this study is agents of socialization and the dependent variable is pester power of children. Agents of socialization Pester power Independent variable Dependent Variable Operationalization In order to quantify independent variable, agents of socialization, the researcher has identified two indicators based upon the findings of literature review which are operationalized as under: Parent/Peer pressure: How the parents buying behavior and patterns are learned by the children because they are in constant contact with them and to what extent the interaction of children with their peer transform their preferences for products? Advertisements / TV programs: How much attention children pay to what they see on television, the retail environment impact children in nagging for a particular product and to what extent children get inclined towards a cartoon character or even children in a commercial? In order to quantify the dependent variable, pester power the researcher has identified three indicators which are operationalized as follows: Product preferences: How much differences in preference of children make them influence their parents purchase decision? Where to buy: How do children know from where they can get their desired product? How to buy: Do they know the tactic of buying the product, by nagging? Hypothesis The hypotheses developed for conducting the research are: H1: There is a relationship between agents of socialization and pester power Null Hypothesis: There is no relationship between agents of socialization and pester power Alternative hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between agents of socialization and pester power. Objectives of the Research Study Several factors such as interaction with parents, interaction with peers, shopping experiences and advertisement (Normal + Celebrity endorsement) has increased the nagging behavior of children. The more increase in interactions of a child with all these factors; it gives rise to pester power or the power of nagging in the child. For measuring pester power, the researcher has prepared a questionnaire (See Appendix) for measuring the impact of these two variables (parent/peer pressure and advertising) on pester power in children. The objective of this study is to measure the nature of relationship that exists between parent/peer pressure, advertising and pester power. Another objective is to find out if only these variables are there to boost up the pester power or there is also something else which has not yet been discovered in the previous research conducted (literature review) on pester power. Due to limited time and money constraints, it is not possible to get accurate and pure results, but the researcher will try his best to get the better results from limited resources. The finding of this study will also be helpful in the professional career of researcher being a business student. There is dramatic increase in the population of youngsters. Being an entrepreneur or marketer, this study will help the researcher to devise an efficient marketing communication strategy in his professional career for example this part of population can be targeted in marketing campaigns because of their larger proportion in the total population and maximum net marketing contribution can be obtained out of it. Secondly, this study will also be beneficial to the parents. The reason is, due to increase in population of youngsters, the marketers are targeting them in their marketing communications. This trend has positive as well as negative effects. Some marketers are using unethical tactics to market their product which is socially unacceptable. This study will help the parents to efficiently control the exposure of children to advertising and parent/peer pressure to minimize pester power and its negative effects. Research Methodology Design This study will be a questionnaire study. In questionnaire study, the respondents will be given a questionnaire and they will have to select from only available options. It is not a laboratory experiment where the environment of respondents can be controlled. It is a social research and the respondents are humans. The environment or context of this research cannot be controlled. The researcher will conduct questionnaire surveys. Questionnaire surveys are appropriate because these surveys allow quantification of data and thus quantitative evidences will be used to justify the results from research study. Questionnaire Surveys will help to gain required responses which can be further converted in quantitative terms for research. Subjects To test above mentioned hypothesis, the researcher will need to find data about agents of socialization and level of pester power. This data will be collected from parents having kids entering a shopping mall. The researcher will be using non-probability sampling method. A sample size of 100 parents entering shopping malls will be taken. Large shopping malls will be targeted for carrying out this research study. Convenience sampling method will be used for this research study. Instruments Instrument for carrying out research is already discussed above which is questionnaire surveys (quantitative research) for getting deep insights of the research problem. The researcher chose questionnaire surveys to get desired responses because quantification of data was desired. Moreover, the subjects find it easy to select an answer from given responses and therefore the response rate of questionnaire surveys are high. An interviewer completed questionnaire of close-ended statements will be used. Each questionnaire is expected to be completed within 10 minutes. So, questionnaire surveys are more flexible than any other instruments for research. Therefore, the above instruments for research study are reliable. Similarly statistical tests like z-test and t-test will be used to measure the reliability of measures. Context The research will be applied to the retail industry of United Kingdom (UK) by visiting the retail chains, retail stores and shopping malls. The research will be conducted from parents visiting the retail stores, retail chains and shopping malls of UK retail industry. Only those parents will be interviewed who will have the children under the age of 10-20 years old. Results Results obtained from the research study will be tested and validated by statistical measures using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. A z-test and t-test will be used to test significance among variables. Moreover, ANOVA will also be used to test significance of variables. Similarly, results obtained from focus groups and in-depth interviews will be tested qualitatively by recording video of these events. Research Paradigm This study Impact of agents of socialization on pester power is a quantitative, deductive and correlation study. The study is quantitative because it involves collection and analysis of numerical data as questionnaires responses can be measured on different scales and could be coded. The study is deductive because hypotheses is tested as There is a positive relationship between agents of socialization and pester power. The researcher arrived at the above hypothesis from the literature review. Now, the researcher already has a statement in the form of hypothesis, and this statement would be tested by collection of data and analysis which is a deductive approach. Finally this study is correlation study because a relationship is being measured between two different kinds of independent variables and dependent variable. In this study, agents of socialization are independent variables and pester power is dependent variable. Ethical Concerns The participants of the research study will be involved in the research with their informed consent by explaining them the purpose of the research study. The participants of the research study will be at minimal risk with no physical harm. A briefing would be given to respondents about the purpose of study by explaining the true nature of our study in order to have their informed consent. The respondents will be given a free choice to opt for giving information and responding to the questionnaire. The element of confidentiality and privacy will be of major concern during this study. The researcher will ensure confidentiality by using dummy data. Limitations It is a single mans effort and therefore some limitations will also be associated with the project and these limitations would be constraints of time and cost. In case of questionnaires surveys, participant in hurry or thinking about something else may choose a wrong response. Moreover, fatigue, anger and hunger may alter the interpretations of surveys. There could be human errors in the analysis and presentation of results. Conclusion The prime users of the study conducted will be the marketers who have to develop their advertising campaign. This point is also very important for parents as well, they try to reduce this pester power in their children, because it bring about negative changes in them, this is the reason that many countries like Canada have banned such advertisements that enhances pester power in children.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Wall-Mart Stores During the time of this case, there are multiple organizational capabilities that took place within the continuous growing Wall-Mart stores during 2003 as well as the years that led up to the time of this case. From the beginning of the store and the vision of Sam Walton, he used all of the different criteria for the BRIO framework. Near the beginning of the creation of Wall-Mart, Sam Walton, the founder of Wall- Mart, had many visions and a clear sense of direction he was working with.Some examples of organization he had that put him above the rest was his sense of worth for the employees by calling them associates, and allowing all employees to be able to reach him on his home phone number. This created a sense of a strong company culture within the Wall-Mart community due to the founder's efforts at communication. He worked on making connections with his employees. This shows a sense of multiple things within the BRIO framework including Value because it portrays a charisma and a personality to the customers by how the company is run and how it treats its employers.A huge part in making the firm valuable in the eyes of consumers includes their slogan, Ã¢â¬Å"everyday low pricesÃ¢â¬ . This is attractive to all consumers because it is the lowest price but yet, comparable to some of Its competitors. Wall-Mart has guaranteed that it is the lowest price because weekly It checks out Its competitors as well such as Smart and Target. This is one of the biggest factors when it comes to Wall-Mart because people shop when it is not only super cheap, but super convenient as well.Being able to have a department store with everything you could need while eater on adding a grocery market section to Wall-Mart raised prices and the number of shoppers there alone. It is convenient because you can go Into one store for almost all of your needs at the lowest price. A resource that is rare that Wall-Mart has Is the way It started up with the distribution which included buying more merchandise directly from the manufacturers. Initially, the scale of operations was a bit modest. After Wall-Mart grew into Superstructures, this was an initial resource and capability that was rare to what other competitors had as well.It grew sales dramatically from what it had initially as mentioned above because of the high convenience and ability to buy all of your needs out In one store. Militantly the form and Idea of buying high-volume at a low merchandising cost, and buying in bulk was so rare in the market and one of its first of its kind. Compared to Smart and Target though, Smart almost failed when trying to keep its prices as low as Wall-Mart. This in fact, leads right up to the point of how costly to imitate Wall-Mart can be when looking at the BRIO framework.To be costly to imitate Wall-Mart used a bit of the other things competitors and others were doing, and Integrated these things Into what Wall-Mart was already it was discussed how Walton wou ld head to other competitors to investigate different options. He would do this for details as even as minuet as how many cars competitors parking lots could fill. There was also room to create the Superstructure as well as Ã¢â¬ËNeighborhood Markets' which are smaller division stores around the suburban areas to create a smaller more relative size to the community.These are to seen with any of the competitors and thus must be harder to imitate since they don't have the resources. Another source that Wall-Mart has taken the advantage, due to being costly for competitors to imitate over with in the past years around this case, is the ability to extend their hours of operation to some 24 hour Wall-Marts. There are no other department, supermarket, or neighborhood stores that do this because of the cost of keeping the store open. This along with the expansion not only around the U. S. , but also the expansion globally has put Wall-Mart ahead of the rest.Organized to capture value is d isplayed in multiple different areas when it comes to Wall-Mart. One of them that continued to grow from when the company first started was its investments in information technology. Compared to when it would take months to compare the inventory-taking lags decreased from months, to weeks, to very close to actual time due to the IT transformation. It automatically linked the distribution centers to computers in the stores and suppliers. This helped utilized the firms' resources and capabilities by being able to maintain a better log of inventory.Other specifics that Wall-Mart does to maintain an organized way to capture value is to put to practice the SOOT analysis. This helps put into perspective what the company has, and perhaps things it could improve on, on a regular basis. One last thing that stuck out to me for this subject was a Balanced Scorecard which is huge within the managing community. For example, this is used often in management to balance financial results, set objec ts, measures, targets, and initiatives in terms of learning and growth, business process, and lastly, the customers.The last thing that Wall-Mart has done to have more availability to organize the capture value is by making goals, setting plans and executing these plans. Making goals, planning and organizing are all essential in a productive and efficient business as big as Wall-Mart in these days today. Through all of these different steps, Wall-Mart has been and will continue to improve in ways which every growing company should. However, BRIO is definitely something that will help keep the absolute and competitive advantage above all the other competitors and it has since its beginning around the sass's.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
We usually think of war injuries as being physical, although one of the most common war injuries is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the effects can be devastating. PTSD is an emotional illness classified as an anxiety disorder and usually develops because of a terribly frightening, life-threatening, or otherwise highly unsafe event, often experienced in combat. Although this condition has likely existed since humans have endured trauma, PTSD has only been recognized as a formal diagnosis since 1980 and statistics regarding this illness indicate that approximately 7%-8% of people in the United States will likely develop PTSD in their lifetime, with the lifetime occurrence in combat veterans ranging from 10% to as high as 30%.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The more severe or chronic symptoms of PTSD can include but are not limited to; flashbacks were they relive the traumatic event for minutes or even days at a time, reacting as though the events were still occurring. Have a n increased tendency and reaction to being startled, and a disproportionate suspicion to threat along with shame or guilt and irritability or anger. They may also suffer the inability to experience pleasure, feel emotionally numb, and a reduced interest in activities they once enjoyed. Have poor concentration, difficulty remembering things, and experience hearing or seeing things that are not there. Furthermore, it is common for them to develop poor self-esteem, have poor relationships, self-destructive behavior, hopelessness about the future, substance abuse, and anti social behavior along with depression. Soldiers with PTSD may tend to avoid people, places, and things that remind them of the event. They often avoid thinking or talking about the traumatic event, seek isolation, and are highly sensitive to normal life experiences. Chief complaints in patients diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder include two major symptoms: anxiety, which causes an abnormal reaction to loud noises and difficulty sleeping due to repeated nightmares. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders causes and effects can be vastly different for female soldiers than male soldiers. Female soldiers suffering from PSTD often do not get proper medicalShow MoreRelatedPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Causes Symptoms and Effects Essay1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestwenty one. This is the number of soldiers wounded or killed in action, received an amputation, or suffered from a Traumatic Brain Injury during Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. What this number does not include are the 39,365 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (more commonly known as PTSD). 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